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Fundamentals

Hot-Rolling, Cold-Forming, Extruding and Forging

In general, “rolling” is a process that uses a pair of rolls to form materials. There are two rolling techniques, hot-rolling and coldroll-forming based on the temperature of the metal being used. If the temperature is above the crystallization temperature of metal, the process is called hot-rolling; otherwise it is called cold-rolling.


In hot-rolling, hot-molten steel is passed several times through pairs of rolls to achieve the desired profile. Most structural steel components such as I-Shape, L-Shape, etc. are hot-rolled.

 

Cold-rolling can increase the material strength and improve the surface finish. Coldroll-forming uses thin sheets of steel to form into various shape sections such as floor and roof panels or C or Z shapes. These shapes are called cold-formed shapes.

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Hot Rolling Process

 

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Cold Forming a C-shape

 

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Cold Forming a Pipe


Extrusion is a process to produce components by pushing or drawing the material through a die (mold) of the desired cross-section. Various materials such as aluminum, polymers, and ceramic or food stuffs can be used to manufacture extruded pieces. Using extrusion processes, components with complex cross-section can be produced. There are two methods of extrusion: hot-extrusion and cold-extrusion.

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Extrusion of a Triodetic Node


Forging is a process used to form metal objects by heating and applying compression force in the form of blows using a power hammer or press. Forging improves the physical properties of metal. Iron and steel are usually hot-forged.

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Forging a Steel Ball

 

 

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